The threat of nuclear war follows us like a shadow that we must absolutely turn around and face. For decades the United States and the international community have tried to negotiate an end to North Korea’s nuclear and missile development, as well as its exports of ballistic missile technology. These attempts have included times of crisis, stalemates, and tentative progress toward denuclearization. The United States has pursued a variety of responses to the increasing challenges posed by North Korea, including military cooperation with U.S. allies in the region, wide-ranging sanctions, and non-proliferation mechanisms. Furthermore, the United States has engaged in two major diplomatic initiatives to have North Korea cease and desist in its nuclear weapons efforts in return for aid.